Table of Contents
GUIDELINE AND CONSENSUS
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 5  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 81-88

Expert consensus on nursing management for patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention during the COVID-19 pandemic


1 Department of Cardiology, Tenth People's Hospital of Tongji University, Shanghai, China
2 Department of Cardiology, Zhongshan Hospital Fudan University, Shanghai, China
3 Department of Cardiology, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing, China
4 Department of Hospital Infection and Disease Control, Zhongshan Hospital Fudan University, Shanghai, China
5 Department of Cardiology, First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China
6 Department of Cardiology, People's Hospital of Wuhan University, Hubei, China
7 Department of Cardiology, The First Medical Center of People's Liberation Army General Hospital, Beijing, China
8 Department of Cardiology, Peking University Shougang Hospital, Beijing, China
9 Department of Cardiology, Wuhan Asia Heart Hospital, Hubei, China
10 Department of Cardiology, Xiamen Cardiovascular Hospital Affiliated to Xiamen University, Fujian, China
11 Department of Cardiology, First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Shanxi, China
12 Department of Cardiology, First Hospital of Lanzhou University, Gansu, China
13 Department of Cardiology, Henan Provincial People's Hospital, Henan, China
14 Department of Cardiology, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Sichuan, China

Date of Submission14-Apr-2020
Date of Acceptance18-May-2020
Date of Web Publication30-Jun-2020

Correspondence Address:
Gui-Hua Hou
Department of Cardiology, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing
China
Li Zhu
Department of Cardiology, Zhongshan Hospital Fudan University, Shanghai
China
Yun-Lan Lu
Department of Cardiology, Tenth Peoplefs Hospital of Tongji University, Shanghai
China
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/cp.cp_9_20

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How to cite this article:
Lu YL, Zhu L, Hou GH, Gao XD, Chen WX, Liu HF, Gu XF, Shi ZT, Wang Y, Wen HM, Xiao J, Yao SY, Zhao WL, Zheng MX, Consensus for Nursing Management of Patients with Suspected COVID.19 Undergoing Primary PCI Expert Group. Expert consensus on nursing management for patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention during the COVID-19 pandemic. Cardiol Plus 2020;5:81-8

How to cite this URL:
Lu YL, Zhu L, Hou GH, Gao XD, Chen WX, Liu HF, Gu XF, Shi ZT, Wang Y, Wen HM, Xiao J, Yao SY, Zhao WL, Zheng MX, Consensus for Nursing Management of Patients with Suspected COVID.19 Undergoing Primary PCI Expert Group. Expert consensus on nursing management for patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention during the COVID-19 pandemic. Cardiol Plus [serial online] 2020 [cited 2020 Aug 5];5:81-8. Available from: http://www.cardiologyplus.org/text.asp?2020/5/2/81/288512




  Introduction Top


The prevention and control of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2[1] is now more critical than ever. The National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China classified COVID-19 as a Category B infectious disease, as stipulated by the Law of the People's Republic of China on Prevention and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, and took preventive and control measures defined for Category A infectious diseases.[2] By January 29, 2020, the highest-level (Level I) response for major public health emergencies had been initiated against COVID-19 in 31 provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities in China. Among the uncontrolled spread of the COVID-19 pandemic, prevention and control in China remains critical.

The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic coincided with the peak season for cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, while measures are taken to prevent and control COVID-19, the diagnosis and treatment of acute coronary syndromes (ACSs) should not be neglected. During the COVID-19 pandemic, it is preferable to treat ACS patients while strictly implementing the five basic principles of “Nearby Treatment, Safety Protection, Priority of Thrombolysis, Transport to Designated Hospitals, and Remote Consultation.”[3] However, if the benefits of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) outweigh the risks (namely the risk of disease transmission to medical personnel and the risk associated with surgery for patients), primary PCI should be considered.[4] However, for patients with suspected COVID-19, it is highly challenging to maintain infection control during the entire primary PCI process. Not only should more standardized, rapid, and effective treatment be administered to such patients but also strict prevention and control measures should be taken in accordance with the guiding principle of “concentrating patients, medical experts, resources, and treatment into special centers” to resolutely prevent the spread of COVID-19. Currently, there is little experience and a lack of effective and standardized evidence-based guidelines regarding PCI nursing management for these patients. Moreover, there is a need to provide advice regarding global nursing management for ACS patients with suspected COVID-19 requiring primary PCI while maintaining pandemic prevention and control. Therefore, the Cardiovascular Nursing and Technology Training Center of the China Cardiovascular Association formed an expert group, consisting of 13 Chinese cardiovascular nursing experts with experience working in cardiac intervention centers and one expert from the hospital infection control department with experience in nosocomial infection management, to provide a consensus. The main responsibilities of this group were to oversee the development of the expert consensus, to approve the incorporation of documentary evidence, and to consult and collate expert opinions.

The consensus developed by this group defines the target population and provides guidelines for the management of patients with suspected COVID-19 or ACS requiring primary PCI when suspected COVID-19 cannot be ruled out. It aims to develop a comprehensive nursing management model encompassing the entire primary PCI process, including system development, pre-preparation, reception and transfer, preoperative preparation, intraoperative prevention and control, and postoperative management. The goal of this consensus is to satisfy clinical needs, ensure rapid and efficient treatment, achieve a zero infection rate, and prevent cross-infection among healthcare staff.


  Development of the Standard Operating Procedure Top


Set up an emergency response team

An emergency response team should be established in the cardiac catheterization laboratory (CCL) to receive patients with suspected COVID-19 who require primary PCI. The team should be headed by the head of the cardiology department; the deputy heads of the team should be the medical subdirector and the head nurse. The team should consist of all the CCL staff, including medical and nursing technicians, customer service executives, logistics staff, and administrative support staff. There should be clear schedules and assignments of responsibilities [Figure 1] acknowledged by all staff members. It is recommended that the response team hold weekly seminars online and have emergency meetings whenever new tasks or requirements are assigned and when contingencies or emergencies are encountered. All members of the team should participate, speak out, and be heard, and should offer suggestions and feedback to improve the process.
Figure 1: Assignment of responsibilities to members of the emergency response team

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Strictly enforce the “daily report system” and “zero report system” for staff with a history of travel

All staff should register their information on trips outside the province and abroad. Staff with a history of travel should not resume work upon return but instead stay at home for a 14-day isolation period (calculated from the arrival date). Self-evaluation should be carried out daily. The body temperature should not exceed 37.3°C when they resume work, and they should be assessed for COVID-19 symptoms.[5] If any abnormalities are detected, they should be reported in a timely manner to the head of the cardiology department and the hospital infection management department and dealt with in accordance with the response plan for fever. Continuation of work despite illness should be strictly forbidden.

Optimize the rapid deployment and procurement of protective equipment

Timely reports should be sent to the hospital's COVID-19 prevention and treatment working group to ensure the rapid and rational deployment of protective equipment and meet the clinical needs of the staff. Special equipment including one-piece protective clothing, goggles or protective face screens, infrared thermometers, medical protective masks, disposable shoe covers (boot covers recommended), and air disinfection machines should be fully available.

Add an access control system for outsiders and staff

Access should be strictly restricted to CCL personnel. Only CCL staff who are working on a given day should be allowed access, and there should be strict enforcement of the access system. In addition, entrants should fully cooperate with the receptionist for temperature measurements and relevant record keeping.

Training and education

To enhance their ability to manage emergency PCI patients with suspected COVID-19 and increase their awareness regarding infection prevention and control, training for the relevant system procedures, management, and protection requirements should be provided to CCL staff. Scenario simulations for relevant emergency plans should also be conducted to help the staff manage unexpected situations. All training and exercises should have a corresponding assessment, feedback, and records, and continuous improvement should be ensured. The training, education, and emergency drills should include training for additional systems, contingency plans, and process improvements; staff performance should be documented, and feedback should be provided. In addition, there should be comprehensive training and testing for special protection and hospital infection management.


  Patient Admission and Transfer Top


Establish a reporting system

Patients must be screened by the hospital fever clinic, and cases of suspected COVID-19 should be reported to higher authorities (such as the medical services management department, nursing department, and hospital infection control department) and recorded. When it is determined that CCL involvement will be required, emergency surgery backup personnel should be called, and they should immediately report to the department director and the head nurse.

Review and optimize the admission and transfer route

Patients should be accompanied by a physician from the chest pain center to the CCL via a dedicated passage and elevator,[6] avoiding public areas as much as possible. The patient should be taken to the designated isolated operation room (OR) and the buffer zone should be shut down. Preoperative preparation should be completed by the CCL nurse according to appropriate medical guidelines. After the operation, the patient should be transferred to the isolation ward for further observation and treatment via a dedicated elevator and passage. All staff involved in the transfer should take level II protection measures for infectious diseases as required. Patients should wear medical-surgical masks if their condition permits.[7]

Utilize the “ISBAR” communication model for patient transfer and handover

The “ISBAR” communication model is used to focus on the two key links of the transfer process: chest pain center staff to CCL health care staff and CCL staff to isolation ward health care staff. The “ISBAR” structured communication model[8] includes the following: I for identification, including the patient's bed number, name, age, sex, and whether the direct online report has been completed; S for situation, including the patient's complaints, initial diagnosis, admission details, temperature, cough, respiratory symptoms, changes in the status of the illness, related treatment, and effects; B for background, including the patient's medical history, history of pandemic exposure, and allergies; A for assessment, including the various clinical parameters, laboratory test results, lung computed tomography results, electrocardiogram, skin wounds, safety risk assessment results, and family support; and R for recommendations, including a focus on the nursing consensus and other special handover components.


  Preoperative Preparation Top


Procedure for the preoperative conversation to obtain consent and arrangements for family members

When a patient with suspected COVID-19 requires primary PCI, they should be accompanied by a family member who can sign the Informed Operation Consent Form. Family members should not be allowed to enter the CCL during the operation but instead wait in the family waiting area (medical protective mask required).

Nosocomial infection control in the operation room

It is preferred to designate negative-pressure ORs as isolated ORs. The return air units of the central air conditioning (laminar flow and ventilation) must be switched off if general ORs are used. All items that are temporarily or potentially not required in the OR should be removed to avoid contamination. All items needed for the operation should be adequately prepared and placed in the OR. A warning sign of “Surgeries for Infectious Diseases, Access Limited” should be hung outside the door of the isolated OR, and personnel not involved in the surgery should not be allowed to enter the OR.

Accurate assessment of the patient's condition

Respiration and oxygen saturation should be assessed before surgery. Effective oxygen therapy should be administered in a timely manner depending on the changes in the oxygen saturation,[9] and an oxygen mask is recommended. Furthermore, for patients receiving general anesthesia, it should be confirmed that the ventilator is in a good working condition. During the surgery, changes in body temperature, pulse, respiration, blood pressure, and other vital signs should be monitored strictly. Effective coordination is needed to complete the surgery quickly and safely.

Bed units

Two layers of disposable bed linen should be put on the surgical bed used for digital subtraction angiography. In addition, the patient transfer trolley should be placed in the OR (one trolley for one person and sterilization after use).

Material preparation

All equipment in the OR should be covered with disposable equipment covers to prevent contamination by the patient's blood and body fluids.

Personnel restrictions

The number of personnel involved in the operation should be minimized, and nosocomial infection prevention and control should be conducted according to the national guidelines.

Preparation of disinfectant

Disinfectants such as 75% alcohol or hydrogen peroxide are effective for the prevention of COVID-19. Pure chlorhexidine (Hibitane) products should be avoided.


  Intraoperative Prevention and Control Top


Surgical staff

The OR should be staffed only by a surgeon, an assistant, a circulating nurse, and a control room technician to minimize the number of personnel involved in the operation. The OR personnel should be subject to level III protection against infectious diseases and not be permitted to leave the OR during the operation. Personnel outside the OR should be subject to level II protection against infectious diseases and not be allowed to enter the designated OR except in special circumstances. In case of rescue or other special circumstances, if the staff needs to enter the OR, they must ensure level III protection against infectious diseases and use the patient passage instead of the regular passage to the OR and control room. In addition, after the completion of the surgery, they should not be allowed to return directly to the control room before wearing new protective equipment and removing the potentially contaminated set.[10]

Personal protection

Staff involved in a surgery should not be allowed to enter the OR until they have worn personal protective equipment outside the OR.[11] All personnel performing PCI must wear and remove the protective equipment in accordance with the level III protection standards for infectious diseases.[9] The procedure for wearing equipment for level II and III protection against infectious diseases in a clean area is illustrated in [Table 1]. The procedure for removing the protective equipment at the end of the surgery is shown in [Table 2]. Classification and requirements for personal protection are listed in [Table 3].
Table 1: Procedure for wearing equipment for level II and III protection against infectious diseases in a clean area

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Table 2: Procedure for removing the protective equipment after the surgery

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Table 3: Personal protection classification and requirements

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Passing of consumables

All disposable consumables required in the surgery should be available in the OR to reduce the need to open the OR door and pass supplies. The nurses outside the OR should record this for the surgery.

Waste treatment

Secondary contamination is strictly prohibited, and ground contamination should be minimized.

All consumables and packaging of the medications used in the isolated OR should be disposed as medical waste. All medical waste should be disposed in double-layered medical waste bags. The sharp instruments should go into the designated container for sharp objects.[12] Surgery should be performed using disposable surgical kits and disposable surgical instruments, dressings, and consumables whenever possible. These should be disposed directly in the medical garbage can (yellow lid) after use together with other waste; surgical instruments that will be used again should be sprayed with a sanitizer close to the bedside, and they should then be sealed, marked, and sent to the sterilization supply center.

Personnel management

During the operation, the staff must stay inside the OR and not leave unless essential. The operation should be performed carefully to prevent the splashing of blood and body fluids, which could lead to contamination.


  Postoperative Management Top


Effectiveness of disinfection

To ensure adequate disinfection, disinfection measures should be taken immediately after the surgery.[13]

Protection of logistics staff

Cleaners must wear protective equipment, such as overalls, disposable hats, medical protective masks, disposable gloves or long-sleeved thick rubber gloves, waterproof isolation suits, protective face screens, and work footwear (with waterproof boot covers) or rubber boots, for disinfection and cleaning.

Disinfection principle

The “sterilize–clean–sterilize again/disinfect again” principle should be followed.[14]

Infectious waste

All equipment, instruments, and objects; blood, secretions, and excretions; and potentially contaminated areas including the surfaces of objects, air, and air conditioning systems used or touched by patients must, by default, be considered infectious and disinfected strictly.[15]

Disinfection methods and disinfectant selection

All instruments should be wiped with 1000 mg/L of an effective chlorine disinfection solution. Desks, floors, walls, surfaces of objects in the ORs, buffer zones, control rooms, and air conditioning and laminar flow systems (new air vents and return air vents) should also be disinfected with this solution. If there is contamination due to blood or secretions, the effective solution strength of the chlorine disinfectant should be increased to 2000–5000 mg/L; the solution should be sprayed and left for 30 min before it is wiped. The isolation room should be thoroughly cleaned and disinfected and then irradiated with ultraviolet light (extended irradiation for more than 1 h). Air disinfection can be carried out with a hydrogen peroxide aerosol after ensuring that there are no humans in the areas. ORs should be closed for at least 2 h before turning on the laminar flow and ventilation; they should be well ventilated and both natural and mechanical exhaustion may be performed.

After the completion of sterilization, the isolated OR can only be used again after air and surface sampling tests with approval from the department of hospital infection and disease control.

Patient contaminants (blood, secretions, drainage fluid, vomit, and excrement) should be collected in disposable containers containing 20,000 mg/L of an effective chlorine disinfection solution. After soaking for 2 h at a 1:2 ratio of contaminated solution to disinfectant solution, they should be poured into the washing chamber. Disposable containers should be disposed directly in medical waste bins. After use, goggles and hoods should be wiped with 75% alcohol or soaked in 2000 mg/L effective chlorine disinfection solution for 30 min and then wiped with a water yarn block and reserved for future use. Moreover, 75% alcohol or 2000 mg/L effective chlorine disinfection solution should be used to wipe and disinfect the used lead clothing and lead collars; the equipment should then be wiped with water yarn and hung on a lead clothing rack to dry.

The inner and outer contact surfaces of the drum should be wiped with 1000 mg/L effective chlorine disinfection solution.

The isolated elevator used by the patient should be disinfected by wiping with 2000 mg/L of an effective chlorine disinfection solution, and hydrogen peroxide aerosol should be used for air disinfection after ensuring that no human enters the area. Similarly, patient-used transfer vehicles should be wiped down with 2000 mg/L effective chlorine disinfection solution.[16]

Evaluation after disinfection

After the isolated OR has been sterilized, it can only be used again after air and surface sampling tests have been conducted and passed.

Medical waste transport

Medical waste should be sealed and covered with double-layered yellow garbage bags outside the OR and subsequently transported with “COVID-19” warning labels. Designated personnel should collect this waste and take it to a medical waste station for disposal.

Cleaning tools

Disposable cleaning tools are recommended. All cleaning tools required in the isolated OR should be kept separately and should not be mixed during use and storage.

Registration and reporting

Patient status should be reported to the higher levels of management (such as the medical services management department, nursing department, and hospital infection control department). The physician who first diagnosed the case, i.e., the emergency physician, should fill out the Infectious Disease Report Card in a timely manner. Time nodes should be recorded in detail during the surgery according to the ACS treatment requirements.[5] The surgical registry must be marked with the words “Suspected COVID-19” in the remarks column in red for traceability.

Establish a “medical observation” management program for surgical personnel

When performing a primary PCI on patients with suspected COVID-19, all health-care staff should adhere to level III protection measures for infectious diseases. Health-care staff at risk of exposure in the perioperative period should be isolated for 14 days according to the standard procedures. Once a patient is diagnosed with COVID-19, it is recommended that the medical team should be observed closely for 14 days, during which their temperature should be taken twice a day and reported online to the higher-level department via the “Medical Observation Staff Details Daily Report.” If any abnormality is detected, it should be promptly reported and treated.[17]

Emergency psychological crisis intervention for patients and health-care staff

During this unprecedented crisis, medical workers have come under tremendous stress, with some experiencing anxiety, sadness, and panic and others reporting severe insomnia and other stress reactions that can substantially affect their work and life. Some psychological assistance and crisis intervention can be provided. The psychological interventionist should listen carefully and identify with their feelings, provide emotional support, encourage self-approval, and increase self-confidence. They should encourage the health-care workers to choose an activity of their liking that will provide stress relief, such as listening to music, yelling, looking out into the distance, exercising, and crying,[18] so that they can have an optimistic, hopeful, and cheerful outlook.


  Conclusion Top


While confronting this major pandemic, health-care workers everywhere regard pandemic prevention and control as their top priority. Health-care staff need to make adjustments to the process of managing ACS patients. Grasping the principle of providing rapid and efficient treatment while ensuring zero infection among health-care staff and the prevention of cross-infection between patients can be challenging. The management strategies and recommendations provided in this consensus can assist the nursing management of patients undergoing cardiac interventions while ensuring pandemic prevention and control. Since the severity of and control measures for the COVID-19 pandemic vary among different regions and the distribution of medical resources is not even, hospitals at all levels can make reasonable adjustments based on this expert consensus according to their actual local situation. As the characteristics of the pandemic change and information on the disease increases, protective strategies and management plans should be updated regularly.

Acknowledgments

We thank GE Junbo (Zhongshan Hospital Affiliated to Fudan University), HUO Yong (Peking UniversityFirst Hospital), XU Yawei (Tenth People's Hospital Affiliated to Tongji University), FANG Weiyi (Shanghai Chest Hospital Affiliated Shanghai Jiao Tong University), SU Xi (Wuhan Asia Heart Hospital), WANG Yan (Xiamen Cardiovascular Hospital Affiliated to Xiamen University), and XIANG Dingcheng (People's Liberation Army General Hospital of Southern Theater) for their support in developing the consensus.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
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