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  Indian J Med Microbiol
 

Figure 1: A schematic diagram of ALA regulating CVD through three mechanisms. First, ALA or DHLA reduces oxidized thiol groups to restore ALDH2 activity. Second, ALA or DHLA quench ROS to reduce oxidative stress. Third, ALA or DHLA has anti-inflammatory properties, including the decrease of Vcam1, CCL2, NF κB and Cx3cl1, and the increase of HMOX1. ALA exerts a protective effect on CVD through the main three mechanisms above. ALA: alpha-lipoic acid, DHLA: dihydrolipoic acid, ALDH2: aldehyde dehydrogenase-2, ROS: reactive oxygen species, Vcam1: vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, CCL2: C-C motif chemokine ligand 2, NFκB: nuclear factor kappa-B, Cx3cl1: C-X3-C motif chemokine ligand 1, HMOX1: heme oxygenase 1

Figure 1: A schematic diagram of ALA regulating CVD through three mechanisms. First, ALA or DHLA reduces oxidized thiol groups to restore ALDH2 activity. Second, ALA or DHLA quench ROS to reduce oxidative stress. Third, ALA or DHLA has anti-inflammatory properties, including the decrease of Vcam1, CCL2, NF κB and Cx3cl1, and the increase of HMOX1. ALA exerts a protective effect on CVD through the main three mechanisms above. ALA: alpha-lipoic acid, DHLA: dihydrolipoic acid, ALDH2: aldehyde dehydrogenase-2, ROS: reactive oxygen species, <i>Vcam1:</i> vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, CCL2: C-C motif chemokine ligand 2, NFκB: nuclear factor kappa-B, Cx3cl1: C-X3-C motif chemokine ligand 1, HMOX1: heme oxygenase 1