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  Indian J Med Microbiol
 

Figure 7: Quantification of molecules involved in FAO. A and B, Relative mRNA levels of PPARβ and PPARa. Changes indicate shift in the regulation of FAO. C, Significant increase in UCP3 levels indicates elevation in redox levels, proton leakage, and FAO in the mitochondria. D, Increased PGC-1a levels indicate an upregulation of mitochondrial biogenesis and restored mitochondrial function. E, pAMPK/AMPK levels were higher in the dapa treatment groups than in the TAC group. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01,***P<0.001 vs. the sham group; #P < 0.05, ##P < 0.01, ###P < 0.001 vs. the TAC group, Student's t-test. Results are expressed as the mean ± SD. PPARβ: Peroxisome proliferatoractivated receptors β, dapa: Dapagliflozin, TAC: Thoracic aortic constriction, UCP3: Uncoupling protein 3, PPARα: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors α PGC-1α: Proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1α, pAMPK: Phosphorylated 5'AMP-activated protein kinase, FAO: Fatty acid oxidation, SD: Standard deviation

Figure 7: <b>Quantification of molecules involved in FAO.</b>
<b>A</b> and <b>B</b>, Relative mRNA levels of PPARβ and PPARa. Changes indicate shift in the regulation of FAO. <b>C</b>, Significant increase in UCP3 levels indicates elevation in redox levels, proton leakage, and FAO in the mitochondria. <b>D</b>, Increased PGC-1a levels indicate an upregulation of mitochondrial biogenesis and restored mitochondrial function. E, pAMPK/AMPK levels were higher in the dapa treatment groups than in the TAC group.
*<i>P</i> < 0.05, **<i>P</i> < 0.01,***P<0.001 vs. the sham group; #<i>P</i> < 0.05, ##<i>P</i> < 0.01, ###<i>P</i> < 0.001 vs. the TAC group, Student's t-test. Results are expressed as the mean ± SD.
PPARβ: Peroxisome proliferatoractivated receptors β, dapa: Dapagliflozin, TAC: Thoracic aortic constriction, UCP3: Uncoupling protein 3, PPARα: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors α PGC-1α: Proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1α, pAMPK: Phosphorylated 5'AMP-activated protein kinase,  FAO: Fatty acid oxidation, SD: Standard deviation